Black British - Minority Rights Group (2023)

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Profile

The Black British population is made up predominantly of descendants of immigrants from the West Indies and Africa who migrated to the UK from the 1950s onwards. In the 2011 Census, out of a total of 1.9 million people (3 per cent of the UK population) who described themselves as black/Caribbean/Afro-Caribbean, of whom 601,700 (0.95 per cent) were Caribbean, along with 1.02 million (1.6 per cent) black Africans and 282,100 (0.45 per cent) other black people. A quarter of minority ethnic people placed themselves in these three categories. More than 615,000 people identified themselves as of mixed white and black descent in the 2011 Census. Most of the community live in the large cities.

By 1984 the Black British population in the UK no longer consisted predominantly of immigrants but was mainly UK-born.

Historical context

The centuries-long history of black people in Britain began with the Roman conquest. The Roman army brought troops from across its far-flung empire. African soldiers were stationed at Hadrian’s Wall, and African slaves, as well as free women and men lived in various parts of Roman Britain. The Roman governor of Britain Septimus Severus was a black African educated in Europe. There are further records of black people living in Britain in the twelfth century.

Beginning in the sixteenth century, there was a small but growing black population in Britain. As a sign of the community’s increasing presence, in 1596, Queen Elizabeth I issued a decree for the arrest and expulsion of Africans as she had decided there were too many in London. But the slave trade conducted by some of her naval commanders and expanded by future generations continued to bring black people to Britain. By the eighteenth century there were distinct African communities in London, as well as in Bristol, Cardiff and Liverpool, the main slave-trading ports. The buying and selling of African women and men was taking place in numerous British port cities, especially London. Those trained in domestic service were held in an indeterminate status, as ‘slave-servants’. Black servants were kept by some British aristocrats and travelled with the rest of the households to other parts of Britain. Some were released, and others managed to escape, aided by other Africans. Members of the black community became prosperous traders and journalists in London and elsewhere. It is thought that by the end of the eighteenth century, at least 10,000 black people were living in London with a further 5,000 in the rest of the country.

By the end of the eighteenth century, Britain was at the centre of a vast slave-trading network spanning the Atlantic Ocean. More than a million African slaves toiled on plantations in the British West Indies, while many more lives were lost because of the inhuman conditions in which they were transported and then forced to work. The slave trade was banned in 1807. When slavery was abolished in 1833, the slave owners were compensated by the British government. The slaves, however, were not and faced extreme poverty in the monoculture sugar economies that Britain had set up in the Caribbean.

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The first wave of mass immigration to Britain began during World War I when Afro-Caribbeans arrived to join the armed forces and to work in the war industries and merchant navy. The local population confronted the immigrants with hostility and sometimes violence. A similar pattern was repeated during World War II.

After the war newly nationalized public services, such as British Rail, the National Health Service and London Transport, recruited workers from Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad. The first arrivals were 492 Jamaicans who came on the shipWindrushin June 1948. By 1962 there were around 250,000 Afro-Caribbean migrants who had settled permanently in the UK. Racist attacks on the Caribbean community in the Notting Hill area of London in 1958 were followed by the creation of the annual Notting Hill Carnival by the community in 1959.

In the British West Indies the cost of living had nearly doubled during the war. Unemployment, social dislocation and poverty were widespread. Migration to the UK, where there were employment opportunities that failed to attract British-born workers, was a strategy imposed largely by necessity.

Most of those who came were young women and men in their early twenties, and almost all found work for which they were overqualified. The men worked in the metal goods, engineering and car manufacturing industries, and in transport and communications, while the women were concentrated in such occupations as nursing and catering.

Until 1962 all Commonwealth citizens could freely enter the UK to work. The 1962 Commonwealth Immigration Act subjected Commonwealth citizens to immigration controls. The 1968 Commonwealth Immigration Act required immigrants to show a close connection with the UK. In 1972 immigrants had to obtain work permits unless their parents or grandparents were born in the UK. Nevertheless, immigration from the West Indies and also African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria continued.

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While the 1965 Race Relations Act made discrimination on ethnic and racial grounds illegal in public places, further reinforced by the 1968 Race Relations Act ban on discrimination in housing, employment and financial services, racist sentiments were inflamed by Conservative MP Enoch Powell’s warning in 1968 that continued immigration would result in ‘rivers of blood’. Although the Conservative Party sacked him from the shadow cabinet, workers went on strike in support of his views.

The Race Relations Act was revised again in 1976 to ban direct and indirect discrimination in a wide range of public and private services, but it did not include the police. Relations between the police and the black British community were tense on account of extensive police use of the so-called ‘Sus Law’, provisions of the 1824 Vagrancy Act, which allowed the police to stop, search and arrest people they deemed likely to commit a crime.

In 1981 the stop and search policy led to three days of violent demonstrations in Brixton followed by protests in other cities leading to many injured civilians and police and millions of pounds worth of damage to property. The Scarman report into the Brixton riots urged the government to improve community policing and address deprivation. About half of young Afro-Caribbean men in Brixton were unemployed. The Sus Law was abolished and the Police Complaints Authority was set up. However, demonstrations broke out again in Brixton in 1985 after an Afro-Caribbean woman was accidentally shot and badly injured by police during a raid on a house. Protests spread to deprived areas of other cities, resulting in three deaths, many injured and ransacked property.

Anger at police failures in the investigation into the racist murder of the Afro-Caribbean teenager Stephen Lawrence in 1993, and then the death of a young black man in police custody in 1995, resulted in more protests in Brixton. The report into the Stephen Lawrence case, published in 2000, accused the police of being ‘institutionally racist’. The police were included in the public services covered by the 2000 Race Relations Act, and the Independent Police Complaints Commission replaced the Police Complaints Authority in 2004. The 2000 Race Relations Act also requires public authorities to actively promote equality of opportunity and the elimination of racial discrimination. Greater attempts have been made to recruit more black and ethnic minority members into the police. But further violent demonstrations took place in Brixton in 2001 following the fatal shooting of an Afro-Caribbean man by police.

Current issues

Black British people make significant contributions to all walks of life in the UK but continue to face very considerable levels of discrimination. There are highly placed black politicians, but the black population is generally under-represented in politics. Many black people – particularly in the inner cities – remain trapped in a cycle of poverty and discrimination in employment and housing. The gap in income is stark: UK-born black people earn on average 7.7 per cent less than white people. That figure rises to 15.3 per cent for those born outside the UK. This is not about educational attainment; in fact, the earnings differential rises dramatically for black people after pursuing higher education. Black people with university degrees earn on average 23 per cent less than white people with similar qualifications. A further challenge is educational inequalities: though in primary and secondary education the gaps between black and white students have narrowed, with comparable levels of attainment at GCSE level, the disparities are sharp at higher education. A variety of barriers, including continued discrimination, mean that black students are on average 1.5 times more likely to drop out of university than their white counterparts.

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Unemployment levels are also relatively high. Black people faced unemployment rates at 9.0 per cent compared with 3.1 per cent for white people during the year ending in the first quarter of 202. Black people are more likely to live in poverty than whites: around 46 per cent compared with 19 per cent respectively. This affects health outcomes: in England and Wales, mortality rates for Black African and Black Caribbean infants were respectively 7 and 5.8 per 1,000 compared with 3.2 for white British infants in 2017 (using Office for National Statistics sources and categories). Black women are four times more likely than white women to die in pregnancy or childbirth.

An especially contentious issue is the disproportionate targeting of black individuals, particularly youth, by the justice system. In England and Wales, black men are more than three times more likely to be arrested than white men, with the disparities even sharper among black youth: young black people, aged between 10 and 17, appear to be nine times more likely to end up incarcerated in offender institutions than their white peers. This is illustrated by the disparity in the controversial practice of stop-and-search: data shows that the rate per 1,000 black people was 52.6 were stopped and searched during the year ending March 2021 compared with a rate of 7.5 for white people. The rate for black people not identifying as of either African or Caribbean backgrounds was even higher: 158 per 1,000 people were stopped and searched during the same period. The inequalities are even more evident with the use of Section 60, a discretionary power that allows police to stop and search in a particular area for a limited period of time without the normal requirements of reasonable suspicion. Ethnic minority and black people were respectively 6.2 and 14 times more likely to undergo a Section 60 search in 2020-2021 than white people.

The resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in the UK, in the wake of the killing of George Floyd in the United States in May 2020, has brought renewed attention on targeted policing and other discriminatory practices towards black people in the UK. More broadly, protests have highlighted the continued failure to confront the UK’s legacy of racism, reflected in the presence of statues in cities across the country commemorating figures with strong links to slavery or colonialism. In Bristol, for instance, demonstrators removed the statue of Edward Colston, a prominent figure in the Atlantic slave trade, which had stood in the city centre since 1895.

The way that the UK’s history of racism continues to profoundly shape the experiences of black people in the UK today is illustrated by the challenges confronting many members of the ‘Windrush generation’, named after the ship that brought one of the first groups of Caribbean immigrants to the UK after World War II. Tens of thousands of British residents who had come over from the Caribbean, some of them more than 50 years ago, found themselves suddenly targeted as ‘illegal’ immigrants, excluded from basic health services and threatened with deportation. After widespread media coverage the government apologized for its actions. The Home Office admitted that the authorities had wrongly deported or detained at least 164 Black British citizens. Some 5,000 people have alleged that they have faced serious harm by losing their jobs or being denied public services. The case illustrates how negative discussions around immigration in general can impact directly on British minorities.

Updated September 2022

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FAQs

Who was the first black British citizen? ›

Mixed race Dido Elizabeth Belle who was born a slave in the Caribbean moved to Britain with her white father in the 1760s. In 1764, The Gentleman's Magazine reported that there was "supposed to be near 20,000 Negroe servants." John Ystumllyn (c. 1738 - 1786) was the first well-recorded black person of North Wales.

What is black African in the UK? ›

They include 'Black Africans', persons with ancestral origins in sub-Saharan Africa; 'White' (or European) people from countries like South Africa and Zimbabwe whose ancestral origins on the continent are associated with colonial projects; 'African Indians' who migrated to East Africa, some 15% of around one million ...

What do you call black Caribbeans? ›

Other names for the ethnic group include Black Caribbean, Afro or Black West Indian or Afro or Black Antillean. The term Afro-Caribbean was not coined by Caribbean people themselves but was first used by European Americans in the late 1960s.

What is the difference between black African and black Caribbean? ›

In this study, the term African American is used to refer to U.S.-born Black Americans, and Afro- Caribbean is used to refer to contemporary Black immigrants from the Caribbean.

Did England have a black king? ›

This led to the Battle of Poitiers, where his army routed the French and took King John prisoner. The year after Poitiers, Edward returned to England.
...
Edward the Black Prince
Issue more...Edward of Angoulême Richard II of England
HousePlantagenet
FatherEdward III, King of England
MotherPhilippa of Hainault
6 more rows

What percentage of England is black? ›

Indian Britons are one of the largest overseas communities of the Indian diaspora and make up 2.3 percent of the total UK population.
...
Ethnicity in the United Kingdom as of 2011.
CharacteristicShare of the total population
Asian/Asian British: Indian2.3%
Asian/Asian British: Pakistani1.9%
Black*3%
3 more rows
29 Mar 2022

What is my ethnicity if I am black? ›

Black or African American

Includes persons having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa, including Black Americans, Africans, Haitians, and residents of Caribbean Islands of African descent. African – Includes people from countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Liberia, etc.

What is my ethnicity if I am white? ›

White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

Which city in England has the largest black population? ›

the regions with the highest percentages of the Black population were London (13.3%) and the West Midlands (3.3%) – the lowest were the North East (0.5%) and Wales (0.6%)

What are Black Latinas called? ›

Afro–Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans (sometimes Afro-Latinos, Afro-Latines, or Afro-Latinx), are Latin Americans of full or mainly African ancestry.

What are Black Jamaicans called? ›

Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans of predominant Sub-Saharan African descent. They represent the largest ethnic group in the country.

Is Jamaican a type of Black? ›

The vast majority of Jamaicans are of Sub-Saharan African descent, with minorities of Europeans, East Indians, Chinese, Middle Eastern, and others of mixed ancestry. The bulk of the Jamaican diaspora resides in other Anglophone countries, namely Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.

Which African country are Jamaicans from? ›

Most Jamaican slaves came from the region of modern day Ghana, Nigeria and Central Africa, and included the Akan, Ashanti, Yoruba, Ibo and Ibibio peoples.

What nationality is black African? ›

The term Black African, as usually used in the UK, refers to people and their offspring with African ancestral origins who migrated via sub-Saharan Africa.

Where did Africans come from? ›

The ancestors of most African Americans came from Africa's western coastal zone, but similar peoples occupied East Africa as well, north to the Sudan and south to the southeast coast of South Africa.

Are there black nobles in England? ›

There is also a small community of British aristocrats that are of partially black descent. Emma Thynn (née McQuiston), the Marchioness of Bath as the wife of the 8th Marquess, belongs to this sub-group.

What is a black queen? ›

The "Black Queen" refers to the "Queen of Spades" from the card game Hearts. The goal of Hearts is to end up as the player with the fewest number of points. However, the Queen of Spades is worth the same number of points as all the other cards combined.

Did Scotland have a black king? ›

Scotland has never had a black king, in the sense of a monarch of African colouration. What it has had is a king called Black Malcolm, or more accurately Dub Mac Mail Coluim, who ruled from 962–967AD. He had black hair, and that's how he got his name.

What percent of London is Black? ›

History and ethnic breakdown of London
Ethnic Group19912011
Number%
Black or Black British: Total535,21613.32%
Black or Black British: African163,6357.02%
Black or Black British: Caribbean290,9684.22%
23 more rows

What is the largest race? ›

The world's largest ethnic group is Han Chinese, with Mandarin being the world's most spoken language in terms of native speakers. The world's population is predominantly urban and suburban, and there has been significant migration toward cities and urban centres.

What percentage of Scotland is Black? ›

Used in association with black Scottish identity, the term commonly refers to Scottish of Black African and African-Caribbean descent. The group (also referred to as African-Scottish, Afro-Scottish, or Black Scottish) represent approximately 0.7 percent of the total population of Scotland.

Is black a ethnicity or race? ›

The Census Bureau defines race as a person's self-identification with one or more social groups. An individual can report as White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, or some other race.

What are the 7 races of the world? ›

Categorizing Race and Ethnicity
  • White.
  • Black or African American.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native.
  • Asian.
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
4 Aug 2021

What is African American DNA? ›

The average African-American genome, for example, is 73.2% African, 24% European, and 0.8% Native American, the team reports online today in The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Is Hawaiian a race or ethnicity? ›

Native Hawaiians, (also known as Indigenous Hawaiians, Aboriginal Hawaiians, First Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians) (Hawaiian: kānaka, kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli), are the Indigenous ethnic group of Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.

Is British an ethnicity? ›

The far-right British National Party defines itself as the party of the “ethnic British”, as set against “ethnic minorities” who are supposedly taking over. But the fact that hundreds of thousands choose to describe their own ethnicity as Welsh, Scottish, or Cornish shows that “ethnic British” is a nebulous concept.

What race are people from India? ›

Asian A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian Subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

What is the whitest city in the UK? ›

The highest unitary authority with a White British proportion is Redcar and Cleveland (97.6%) followed by Northumberland (97.2%), Hartlepool and County Durham (both 96.6%). The highest county is Lincolnshire (93%) followed by Nottinghamshire, Norfolk and Worcestershire, all above 92%.

How black is the UK? ›

87% of people in the UK are White, and 13% belong to a Black, Asian, Mixed or Other ethnic group (2011 Census data).

What is the blackest city? ›

At 90 percent, South Fulton is the Blackest city in America. No other city above 100,000 population has more than 80 percent Black residents. South Fulton, Ga.

What is the blackest part of Mexico called? ›

Cuajinicuilapa, which sits in the Costa Chica region, is one of several regions in Mexico with the highest population of people of African descent, with an estimated 229,661 Afro-Mexicans.

What is a Mexican black? ›

Afro-Mexicans (Spanish: afromexicanos), also known as Black Mexicans (Spanish: mexicanos negros), are Mexicans who have heritage from Sub-Saharan Africa and identify as such.

What are black Colombians called? ›

Afro-Colombians or African-Colombians (Spanish: afrocolombianos) are Colombians of full or partial sub-Saharan African descent (Blacks, Mulattoes, Pardos, and Zambos).

Is Haitian black? ›

According to The World Factbook, 95% of Haitians are primarily of African descent; the remaining 5% of the population are mostly of mixed-race and European background, and a number of other ethnicities.

Why is Jamaica not in Africa? ›

No, Jamaica is not, geographically and politically, an African country. Jamaica is actually an idependent country situated in the Caribbean (considered part of the North American Continent) sea. Jamaica gained political independence from the British in 1962.

Is Jamaica still under British rule? ›

Jamaica was one of the dominions of the British monarchy from 1655 until 1962, when it gained independence from the British Empire. The country remained a Commonwealth realm with the British monarch as its head of state, represented by an appointed ​​governor-general.

What race are Haitian? ›

Haiti's population is mostly of African descent (5% are of mixed African and other ancestry), though people of many different ethnic and national backgrounds have settled and impacted the country, such as Poles (from Napoleon's Polish legions), Jews, Arabs (from the Arab diaspora), Chinese, Indians, Spanish, Germans ( ...

Why are there so many Jamaicans in England? ›

The British government looked to its overseas colonies for help and encouraged migration in an effort to fill the many job vacancies. Jamaicans, alongside other Caribbean, African and South Asian groups, moved in their hundreds of thousands to the United Kingdom.

What race is native to Jamaica? ›

The majority of Jamaicans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, with significant European, East Asian (primarily Chinese), Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities.

What language did Jamaicans speak before English? ›

Jamaican Patois (/ˈpætwɑː/; locally rendered Patwah and called Jamaican Creole by linguists) is an English-based creole language with West African influences, spoken primarily in Jamaica and among the Jamaican diaspora. A majority of the non-English words in Patois come from the West African Akan language.

What percent of Jamaica is black? ›

Jamaicans of African descent represent 76.3% of the population, followed by 15.1% Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and Afro-East Indian, 3.2% Caucasian, 1.2% Chinese and 0.8% other.

How did black people end up in Jamaica? ›

The first Africans arrived in Jamaica in 1513 as servants to the Spanish settlers. These Africans were freed by the Spanish when the English captured the island in 1655. They immediately fled to the mountains where they fought to retain their freedom and became the first Maroons.

Are Egyptians African? ›

Many Egyptians do not consider themselves Africans. Some take offense even to being identified with Africa at all. When speaking to Egyptians who have traveled to countries below the Sahara, nearly all of them speak of going to Africa, or going down to Africa, as if Egypt were separate from the rest of the continent.

What percentage of America is Black? ›

How were slaves captured in Africa? ›

The capture and sale of enslaved Africans

Most of the Africans who were enslaved were captured in battles or were kidnapped, though some were sold into slavery for debt or as punishment. The captives were marched to the coast, often enduring long journeys of weeks or even months, shackled to one another.

Is Africa the birthplace of the human race? ›

Our species, Homo sapiens, has now spread to all parts of the world but it's generally believed that we originated in Africa by about 200,000 years ago. We interacted with local archaic human populations as we colonised the globe.

What percentage of Africa is black? ›

Blacks made up 79.0% of the total population in 2011 and 81% in 2016. The percentage of all Black households that are made up of individuals is 19.9%. The average Black household size is 4.11 members.

Which country received the most slaves from Africa? ›

Brazil and British American ports were the points of disembarkation for most Africans. On a whole, over the 300 years of the Transatlantic slave trade, 29 per cent of all Africans arriving in the New World disembarked at British American ports, 41 per cent disembarked in Brazil.

When did black British start? ›

Black histories are a vital part of England's story, reaching back many centuries. There is evidence of African people in Roman Britain as far back as the 3rd century AD, and black communities have been present since at least 1500.

When did the first black person arrive in England? ›

John Blanke, the only African trumpeter whose name we have, and who is depicted on Westminster tournament roll in 1511, is said to have arrived in England with Catherine of Aragon in 1501, although a document from June 1488, lists a person named John Blank, a footman already in service of Henry VII.

Were there black people in early England? ›

Africans in Early Modern England (1485-1660s)

Africans were a significant presence in cities such as London, Plymouth and Bristol, but were also present in: Derby, Leicester, and Northampton. Africans also lived in rural villages such as Barnstable (North Devon), Holt (Worcestershire), and Hatherleigh (West Devon).

When were the first Africans brought to England? ›

In 1562 Captain John Hawkins was the first known Englishman to include enslaved Africans in his cargo. Queen Elizabeth approved of his journey, during which he captured 300 Africans. He then sailed across the North Atlantic and exchanged them for hides, ginger and sugar. He returned to London in 1563.

Which city in England has the largest Black population? ›

the regions with the highest percentages of the Black population were London (13.3%) and the West Midlands (3.3%) – the lowest were the North East (0.5%) and Wales (0.6%)

Was slavery ever legal in the UK? ›

Whilst slavery had no legal basis in England, the law was often misinterpreted. Black people previously enslaved in the colonies overseas and then brought to England by their owners, were often still treated as slaves.

What percentage of England is white? ›

Chart
EthnicityNumber%
White48,209,39586.0
White British45,134,68680.5
White Irish531,0870.9
White Gypsy/Traveller57,6800.1
20 more rows
1 Aug 2018

What percent of London is black? ›

History and ethnic breakdown of London
Ethnic Group19912011
Number%
Black or Black British: Total535,21613.32%
Black or Black British: African163,6357.02%
Black or Black British: Caribbean290,9684.22%
23 more rows

How long did the UK have slavery? ›

Most modern historians generally agree that slavery continued in Britain into the late 18th century, finally disappearing around 1800. Slavery elsewhere in the British Empire was not affected — indeed it grew rapidly especially in the Caribbean colonies.

When did Britain make slavery illegal? ›

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) provided for the gradual abolition of slavery in most parts of the British Empire.

Was there black Tudors? ›

Indeed the Black Tudors are just one piece in the diverse jigsaw of migrations that make up the multicultural heritage of the British Isles, which stretches back to the Roman period if not before. Black Tudors came to Britain from Europe, from Africa, and from the Spanish Caribbean.

Who was the first black aristocrat? ›

Hanging on a wall in Scone Palace in Perth, Scotland, is an 18th-century double portrait of two young women of high society.

Where did most slaves come from in Africa? ›

Of those Africans who arrived in the United States, nearly half came from two regions: Senegambia, the area comprising the Senegal and Gambia Rivers and the land between them, or today's Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Mali; and west-central Africa, including what is now Angola, Congo, the Democratic Republic of ...

Where did most of the slaves from Africa go? ›

Well over 90 percent of enslaved Africans were sent to the Caribbean and South America. Only about 6 percent of African captives were sent directly to British North America. Yet by 1825, the US population included about one-quarter of the people of African descent in the Western Hemisphere.

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